Mine reclamation is the most important post mining activity which is done to restore biodiversity on the degraded land. This project is really expensive hence many mining companies forfeit it after the life of the mine. Prominent methods used in restoring biodiversity include; the use of inorganic fertilizer, composting and animal manure. Using inorganic fertilizer is not only expensive but also dangerous to soil flora and fauna. Composting and animal manure are good for this project but the labour involve is too high. The fact that Voandzeia subterranea(Bambara Bean) has a short life cycle, is resistant to pest, diseases as well as harsh weather condition, is able to fix nitrogen into the soil and easily cultivated and mulched makes it more efficient in restoring biodiversity considering time, cost and labour.

A highly degraded site in the quarry is chosen and divided into two(2) PLOTS. PLOT A for the main work and PLOT B as an experimental control.  Voandzeia subterranea(Bambara Beans) is cultivated on PLOT A and left till it matures while PLOT B is left to fallow. it is then cut down and mulched. Native crops are planted on each of the PLOTS and the growth rate of these crops on the two PLOTS monitored.

REDUCING NEGATIVE EFFECTS OF ILLEGAL ARTISINAL ACTIVITIES IN GHANA AND AFRICA

In Ghana the number of people engaged in illegal artisanal activities rose from 30,000 in 1995 to 1miilion in 2006 though government has legalized ASM. (Banchrigah, 2007). Aside they not securing license before operation, their inability to reclaim their degraded land due to high cost of reclamation makes their activities illegal. To salvage the problem of land degradation, more work has to be done on teaching illegal miners how to apply this simple and less expensive method of reclamation....

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30Sep

CONCLUSIONS: STATEMENT ON CHANCES OF SUCCESS AND OUTLOOK ON FUTURE IMPLEMENTATION (2)

The 10 days decomposition period must be extended to at least a month for the Bambara beans to fully relinquish the nutrient it has to the soil.

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30Sep

CONCLUSIONS: STATEMENT ON CHANCES OF SUCCESS AND OUTLOOK ON FUTURE IMPLEMENTATION(1)

Results of present investigation clearly indicated increment in soil nutrient and reduction in toxic level on a lateritic soils. However, new values obtained for soil nutrient increment were not within FAO standard hence the project must be repeated eight times consecutively (two years) until FAO standards are met.

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30Sep

ADDED VALUE: COMPANY

During the various stakeholders’ meetings, GHACEM and the Heidelberg Cement Group were publicized. This in a long time brought the Company to the people of Tarkwa, Atta-ne-Atta, Shama and neighbouring communities. Many knew Ghacem solely as cement manufacturing company, but the research also advertised the mining aspect of the company which has positive effect on WAQL customer network.This is relatively the cheapest, easiest and very efficient biodiversity restoration research ever piloted...

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30Sep

ADDED VALUE: SOCIETY

Although, the inhabitants of Atta-ne-Atta, mostly cash crop farmers, knew the nutritional value of Bambara beans as food, they didn’t know its fertilizer potentials. Simulating the time value of restoring the soil nutrients using Bambara beans, the community agreed to reduce their inorganic fertilizer application by 50%. This will help them save money used to procure inorganic fertilizers during farming.

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30Sep

ADDED VALUE: BIODIVERSITY

Increment in soil nutrients after the research will enhance biodiversity restoration of the experimental plots; primary, secondary and tertiary successors. Most primary successors in the ecological niche are flora and they are dependent on soil nutrients for survival; this research has provided the suitable growth medium for flora.Assessment of macro fauna during and after the research projected 1800% increment at the experimental plots. Total biodiversity assessments have proven that the...

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30Sep

Discussions on Results 2

Increase in height of the control flora occurred during of nodule formation, Maize plant require high amount of nitrogen during tassel formation. Another indication of nitrogen in a plant is its green nature. This is an indication that there was nitrogen fixation going and the nitrogen loving crops absorbed some of the nitrogen leaked into the soil. Some of the nitrogen fixed by leguminous plants is leaked into soils to be absorbed surrounding plants. (Lindemann, W.C. and Glover, C. R., 1996)....

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30Sep

Discussions on Results 1

Reduction in Aluminum (from 25.72 cmol/kg to 0.95 cmol/kg) and hydrogen (18.70 cmol/kg to 0.98 cmol/kg) was due to increment in PH from very strongly acidic (4.84) to strongly acidic (5.65). The more hydrogen ions held by the exchange complex of a soil in relation to the basic ions (Ca, Mg, K) held, the greater the acidity of the soil. Aluminum also contribute to soil acidity. (Crop Nutrition, 2016). Plant nutrients are generally most available to plants in the pH range 5.5 to 6.5 (Haifa, 2016...

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29Sep

% Survival of Native Crops on Plot A and Plot B after 15days

Per stakeholder’s consultation, some selected native crops were cultivated on plot A after the 10 days decomposition period. They were: Maize, Cassava, Oil Palm, Groundnut, Pepper, Okro, Tomatoes, and Mangoes. They were monitored for 15 days. The research indicated 67% survival of native crops cultivated on plot A and 24% survival of native crops on Plot B after 15days. Obtain more information from the graph.

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29Sep

Fauna Captured on Expiremental Plot

Using the site and Count method of fauna sampling, the number of fauna attracted to the experimental plot was obtained. The graph shows the number of fauna before and after the research. It was revealed that, there was 2900% increase in the Fauna on the experimental plot excluding micro organisms

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29Sep

Graph showing percentage Changes in Physicochemical Parameters on Plot B

On Pot B, aside Aluminum, Hydrogen, Arsenic and Cadmium, there was general reduction in the physicochemical parameters on Plot B.

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29Sep

Graph showing percentage Changes in Physicochemical Parameters on Plot A

Aside, Aluminium, Hydrogen, Sodium, Arsenic and Cadmium, all other nutrient analysed increased.

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29Sep

Laboratory Results: % Organic Matter(OM)

Organic matter improves the soil structure and feeds the microorganisms and insects. Hence, organic matter is essential for effective plant growth. Laboratory results indicated a reduction of 22.45% in organic matter on Plot A whilst on Plot B, there was 26.16% reduction.

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29Sep

Laboratory Results: Hydrogen ions(H)

The more hydrogen ions held by the exchange complex ions of a soil in relation to the basic ions (Ca, Mg, K) held, the greater the acidity of the soil. Hence, hydrogen contribute to soil acidity. Laboratory results indicated 94.74% reduction in hydrogen on Plot A whilst Plot B had an increment of 8.04%

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29Sep

Laboratory Results: Aluminium(Al)

Aluminum contribute to soil acidity hence high amount of aluminum in soil is undesirable for plants. On plot A, Aluminum level decreased from 25.72cmol/kg to 0.95cmol/kg representing 94.94% reduction. On Plot B, Aluminum increased from 25.96cmol/kg to 25.97cmol/kg representing 0.038% increment.

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29Sep

Laboratory Results: Calcium (Ca)

Using Ammonium acetate extraction method, Laboratory results revealed an increase in Calcium from 2.37cmol/kg to 2.78cmol/kg representing 17.13% increment on Plot A(Bambara beans Plot). On Plot B, there was reduction in Calcium from 1.83cmol/kg to1.78cmol/kg recording 2.7% reduction.

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29Sep

Laboratory Results: Magnessium(Mg)

One of the magnesium's well-known roles is in the photosynthesis process, as it is a building block of the Chlorophyll, which makes leaves appear green. Ammonium acetate extraction method was used in the determination of magnesium levels on Plot A nd Plot B. Plot A recorded an increase from 0.207cmol/kg to 0.733cmol/kg which is 254.84% increment. On Plot B there was a reduction from 0.20cmol/kg to 0.18cmol/kg which is 8.3% reduction.

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29Sep

Laboratory Results: Potassium(K)

Potassium is an essential plant nutrient and is required in large amounts for proper growth and reproduction of plants. Using the Ammonium acetate extraction method(cmol/kg)(Black, 1986), Plot A(Bambara beans plot) recorded an increment from 0.017cmol/kg to 0.018 recording 5.88% increment. Plot B(Control Plot) there was reduction from 0.019cmol/kg to 0.012cmol/kg.

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29Sep

Laboratory Results: Available Phosphorus(P)

The function of phosphorus in plants is very important. It helps a plant convert other nutrients into usable building blocks with which to grow. Using Bray P1 method (mg/kg)(Bray and Kurtz, 1945), it was revealed that Phosphorus on Plot A increased from 2.32mg/kg to 5.92mg/kg recording an increment of 155.28% On Plot B, there was reduction from 1.27mg/kg to 1.16mg/kg recording 8.6% reduction

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29Sep

Laboratory Results: % Nitrogen(N)

Aside, Carbon, Hydrogen and oxygen, nitrogen is the next plant nutrient require by plants in great amounts. Nitrogen forms essential part of chlorophyll which is the green pigment in plants that gives plants its green colour. Nitrogen level determined using Kjeldahl method (% of soil by weight), showed an increment from 0.04 to 0.049 recording 22.5% increment on Plot A(Bambara beans Plot). On Plot B(Control Plot) there was reduction from 0.033 to 0.032 which is 4% reduction.

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29Sep

Laboratory Results: Cadmium(Cd)

Cadmium is an important pollutant in the environment, toxic to most organisms and a potential threat to human health: Crops and other plants take up Cd from the soil or water and may enrich it in their roots and shoots. Using the Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy,(AAS) Method, it was revealed that there was reduction in the cadmium from 0.0146mg/kg to 0.0143mg/kg but there was no reduction in Cadmium on Plot B (Control Plot)

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29Sep

Laboratory Results: Arsenic (As)

Arsenic is toxic, when not detoxified, may trigger a sequence of reactions leading to growth inhibition, disruption of photosynthetic and respiratory systems, and stimulation of secondary metabolism. Arsenic levels determined using the Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy Method(ASS Method) revealed a reduction in Arsenic from 0.013mg/kg to 0.010mg/kg on Plot A(Bambara beans Plot) and on Plot B(Control Plot) there was no reduction.(0.008mg/kg)

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29Sep

Laboratory Results: Soil pH

Soil pH is the level of acidity or alkalinity of a soil of a soil. Soil pH affects the rate at which nutrients is released to plants for absorption. Soil pH determined in Soil to water ratio of 1:2.5 revealed that pH of soil on Plot A(Bambara beans Plot) increased from 4.48 to 5.65. recording 16. 87% increment. There was reduction in soil pH on Plot B(From 4.77 to 4.69) recording 1.74% reduction.

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29Sep

Radio Section of QLA andBiodiversity Campaign

QLA and Biodiversity Campaign was extended to the radio. Dynamite FM, the second oldest radio station in the western region of Ghana, has a wide coverage , more listeners per day and situated in the heart of mining Community was used for the Campaign. This was done in August.

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29Sep

LETS DELVE INTO RESULTS

To better appreciate the changes in the physicochemical parameters on both Plots, our subsequent update will tackle the parameters one-by-one. We will bring you the results before and after the research. Stay tuned

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24Sep

Results on Physicochemical Parameters on Plot B (Control Plot)

The graph shows the changes in the levels of physicochemical Parameters on Plot B which is our control Plot after the research. Do you notice any difference in the levels? Read our subsequent update for more.

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24Sep

Results on Physicochemical Parameters on Plot A (with Bambara beans)

After ploughing of the our cut Bambara beans into the soil, 10days period of decomposition was allowed after which soil samples were taken from both Plot A and Plot B to ascertain the changes in the physicochemical parameters after the research. The graph shows the changes on Plot A(Bambara beans Plot). Were there any difference in the physicochemical parameters analyzed? which elements decreased? Which ones decreased? Guess you want to find answers. Read our subsequent updates for more.

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24Sep

OBSERVE CRITICALLY

Picture shows a maize plant on Plot A(with Bambara beans) with tassel. Prior to and after tassel formation more nitrogen is absorbed by a maize plant. This is due to the fact that nitrogen is needed to achieved high yield. A maize plant experiencing stunted growth some weeks after emergence to suddenly develop a tassel suggest that it had nitrogen from somewhere. I guess you want to find out how and where? Read our subsequent update to find the answers.

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24Sep

Growth Rate of Kidney Beans on Plot A and Plot B

Using the growth rate formula, it was again found out that Kidney beans on Plot A(with Bambara bean) had a growth rate of 5.8cm/week whilst those on Plot B had a growth rate of 3.8cm/week. Kidney beans were cultivated after Nodule formation( means nitrogen fixation is going on).The changes in height of the Kidney beans on both Plots through the six weeks period is represented on the graph

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24Sep

IS THERE ANY DIFFERENCE?

Kidney beans was cultivated after nodule formation and was also used as control flora to ascertain the contribution of Bambara beans to other flora. After the 6 weeks period, kidney beans on Plot A(with Bambara beans) had an average height of 32.5cm whilst those on Plot B had an average height of 23.4cm. Kidney beans on Plot A is more healthy whilst those on Plot B is stunted. Do you see any other difference?

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24Sep

Growth Rate of Maize on Plot A and Plot B

Using the growth rate formula, it was found out that maize on Plot A(with Bambara beans) had a growth rate of 1.98cm/week and 6.4cm/week before and after nodule formation. Maize on Plot B had a growth rate of 1.78cm/week and 0.28cm/week before and after nodule formation. What might have accounted for the difference in height. The changes in the height of the maize through the 13week period is presented on the graph.

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24Sep

DATA ON MAIZE HEIGHT CAN TELL THE STORY BETTER

In our last update we presented you with pictures of maize plants cultivated on Plot A(with Bambara beans) and Plot B(Control plot with no Bambara beans) at the same time the Bambara beans was planted. Hope you were able to strike some differences between the two. However, to make the story more scientific, the height of the maize plants on both Plot A and Plot B were measured after 13 weeks(just before the Bambara beans was cut down). Maize plants on plot A(with Bambara beans) had an average...

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26Aug

WHAT CAN YOU SAY ABOUT THE TWO?

Today, team Bambara beans is pleased to bring you a picture of the state of the maize prior to cutting of the Bambara beans. The maize was planted after site preparation and at the same time the Bambara beans was planted. Just observe the pictures. What can you see? Are there any difference between the maize plant on plot A and the maize plant on plot B? Your observations may be right but read our next update to find out more.

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24Aug

THE SECOND PHASE OF THE BAMBARA BEANS PROJECT IS ON

The Bambara beans after fixing nitrogen into the soil has been cut and ploughed into the soil. Other nutrients needed for plant growth would be fixed when the Bambara beans decompose. Plants relinquishes all the nutrients they have to the soil when they die and decompose.

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23Aug

WHY WE USED BAMBARA BEANS PODS AS AN INDICATOR?

The main objective of the first stage of our project is to fix nitrogen into the degraded soil by cultivating Bambara beans. Just like any other annual leguminous plant, Bambara beans loses its ability to fix nitrogen at the time of pod formation and development. Hence, Bambara beans no more become useful at the first face of our project. This a good indicator for us to proceed to the next face of our project which is "cutting and mulching". Read our next update to find out why we have to cut...

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21Aug

THE GREEN LIGHT IS ON

As every historical transition is marked by remarkable signatures, so is our transition from "Bambara beans cultivation" to "cutting". The two signatures needed for Bambara beans project to zoom into the next face were "FLOWERS" and "PODS". We these two indicators seen, we will usher into the next face of our project in no time. NOTE: The white round objects at the base of the Bambara beans are the PODS.

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18Aug

ROLE OF BAMBARA BEANS IN NITROGEN CYCLE

There is scarcity of usable Nitrogen in most ecosystems. This is because the chunk of the nitrogen(78-80%) exist in the atmosphere as nitrogen gas. This cannot be utilized by most living organisms. This is why some resilient plants such as Bambara beans are employed to convert the atmospheric nitrogen into ammonia so that organisms can access them for effective growth. The question is, how does Bambara beans do the conversion?

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12Aug

LET US GET CURIOUS ABOUT NITROGEN

 As we prepare for the second phase of our research, let us arm ourselves with some insights about nitrogen. It will interest you to know how essential nitrogen is.

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10Aug

With Bambara beans fixing nitrogen, what else?

After twelve weeks since the first seed of Bambara beans was sown, nitrogen fixation has commenced already and the soil will start supporting other plants very soon. However plants obviously need other nutrients too. How is the research addressing this? Let's read the solutions further....

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08Aug

BAMBARA BEANS FLOWERS

Team Bambara beans is happy to announce that, her Bambara beans has flowered. This is an indication that nitrogen fixation has been going on.

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08Aug

KNOW OUR PROJECT BETTER

In our quest to make our project easily understandable, we have develop a simple chart describing the whole process.

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06Aug

GRASP THE CONCEPT

With less than two months to end this interesting journey, team Bambara beans is pleased to bring you a further and step-by-step explanation of her project.

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06Aug

ARE YOU STILL DOUBTING?

After seeing these images, you will have no reason doubting the ability of Bambara beans to thrive in a degraded land, fix nitrogen and restore biodiversity.

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03Aug

AN EYE OPENING ENCOUNTER WITH THE NATIONAL JURY

After an encounter with the national Jury, we are more energized than ever.

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27Jul

THE MAGIC: DECLARED BY A PUPIL

As we are still waiting patiently for more nitrogen to be fixed into the soil, team Bambara beans continues to preach the gospel of restoring biodiversity using Bambara beans.

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27Jul

THE NEW HAVEN: WELCOME SPIDER

Bambara Beans never ceases in its quest to create a conducive environment for it's guest

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21Jul

THE NEW HAVEN: ANOTHER GUEST ARRIVES

Bambara beans continue to create conducive environment for fauna

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17Jul

THE MUCH AWAITED IS HERE: ROOT NODULES

Nitrogen fixation begins with the formation of root nodules.

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17Jul

THE NEW HAVEN: OUR FIRST GUEST

Bambara beans makes haven for grasshoppers

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17Jul

THE UNINHABITABLE: BAMBARA BEANS EPISODE

Our Bambara beans continue to survive irrespective of the poor nature of the soil

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17Jul

THE UNHABITABLE: THE MAIZE EPISODE

Our initial control which is the maize still shows stunted growth

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17Jul
17Jul

BULK DENSITY

Bulk density determines structural support, water and solute movement, and soil aeration.

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15Jul

SOIL TYPE NOT SUITABLE

Ideally, soil required for efficient plant growth is Loam with sand percentage being 40, clay 20 and silt 40.

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10Jul

BULK DENSITY DETERMINATION

Bulk density gives a good indication of the suitability for root growth and soil permeability.

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09Jul

SOIL TEXTURE DETERMINATION

Soil texture is determined by Particle Size Analysis(PSA) method

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07Jul

IT IS GETTING INTERESTING BUT LET'S GET A BIT SCIENTIFIC LOOKING AT THE WAY FORWARD.

Physico-chemical soil parameters and the growth of Voandzeia subtarranea(Bambara Beans).

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05Jul

TIME TO EXPLAIN MYSELF TO A CONFUSED WORKER WHO HAS BEEN OBSERVING FOR A WHILE

Oportunity presented itself and I took full advantage when one of the workers of Beposo Quarry asked me to introduce my project to him.

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04Jun

PROMISE DELIVERED: BAMBARA BEANS THRIVED ON A DEGRADED LAND

Bambara beans and maize were sowed at the same time. Expectedly, the bambara beans thrived on the nutrient free land while maize withered.

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04Jun

ENJOYING THE THRILL OF PASSING ON KNOWLEDGE

I thought I was the only one enjoying the thrill of sharing the research on the use of Bambara beans to restore biodiversity. The lady I stopped to engage was more than happy to Learn. How wrong I was! Within some few seconds of practise, she was already sowing some bambara beans.

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04Jun

PLANTING BAMBARA BEANS BECAME THE NEW DEAL

This was the heart of the project. Therefore planting of Voandzeia subterranea(Bambara Beans) was carried out carefully.

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04Jun

LET US GET A BIT SCIENTIFIC

Soil Sampling using the V-Method

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04Jun

NO TIME TO WASTE

Site preparation, land demarcation and soil testing were carried out as soon as possible because there was no time to waste.

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04Jun

MAKING ACQUAINTANCE OF NATIVES BECAME NECESSARY

No man is an island. This saying applies to all individuals especially when you are fresh in a community just like Team Bambara was fresh in Atta-ne-Atta in Beposo.

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04Jun

BEPOSO QUARRY: HERE WE COME - TEAM BAMBARA

The joy of starting a long but interesting journey began with a site selection at the Beposo Quarry.

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04Jun

THE GENESIS

Taking a walk through how Bambara beans can make a difference in restoring biodiversity.

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04Jun
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