This research is to promote biodiversity at Yongwa Quarry by decomposing waste using the the Heap, Pit and Windrow decomposition method. The best method will be selected based on growth rate of seedlings, organism count and cost using the concept of ANOVA Technique, and Implement the concept by enriching the soil at the quarry site and training of stakeholders. It will involve the decomposition of waste using the three known techniques, the planting of seedlings in the compost obtained, the measurement and recording of the growth rate of the seedlings, the counting of soil living organisms in the compost and the estimation of the cost involved. Measured and recorded parameters will be analysed and the best decomposition method selected. Implement the research by reclaiming a site at the Quarry; teach the concept in schools and communities.

This research is expected to determine the best and most cost effective soil enrichment method suitable for the Yongwa Quarry Site, provide the best and right source of compost nutrients for the fauna and flora, improve soil quality, enhance insects’ growth and encourage growth of beneficial organisms at the Quarry Site, train the people of the society and applied the concept to enrich farmlands and improve crop growth and yields and reduce the issue of waste management.

 

WHAT DO YOU THINK?

As we bring the whole competition and research to an end, we want you to think about this.

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30Sep

POSSIBLE COLLABORATIONS AND FUTURE WORKS

An in depth study of this research revealed that, there can be a possible collaboration between the research team and a number of organisations. Some of the organisations identified are the Forest Services Division, for seedlings plantation, Municipal Assemble, for waste management, Ministry of Food and Agriculture, for crop yield improvement, and the Mining Companies, for land reclamation purposes.

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23Sep

ADDED VALUE OF THE PROJECT FOR BIODIVERSITY, THE SOCIETY AND THE COMPANY

This study has made it possible, for the 3 most common food waste decomposition methods to be studied using the same waste type and at the same site. The research has also brought to light the knowledge of the best soil enrichment method. It has proven that, food waste decomposition can be used as a tool to enrich soil and promote biodiversity in a quarry/mine. It has also provided a solution to the issues of waste management in our communities and the country at large. The waste used for this...

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23Sep

Concluding Statement

Considering the data presented and the analysis made, it can be concluded that, in terms of growth rate, soil organism (macro and micro) and soil nutrients, the Pit Decomposition Method is the best soil enrichment method. It can also be concluded that, the growth height, the soil organisms and nutrients content in the overburden materials will be improve if Pit Decomposition Method is used as a tool for soil enrichment.

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23Sep

Environmental Issues

During the research, the environmental issues associated with the 3 food waste decomposition methods were studied. It was realised that, the waste used for the Heap and the Windrow had a greater tendency of been washed away by rain (environmental pollution) since the waste is placed on the ground surface. With the Pit decomposition method, it was realised that, the tendency of the waste been washed away is very minimal since the waste in buried in a pit, instead, the water is collected and...

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23Sep

Cost Analysis

The cost involved in obtaining Mix P, W and H was estimated and compared. It was realised that, the cost of collecting the waste and transporting it to site, is the same for all the 3 methods. This is because; the waste materials used for this research were collected from the same sources and transported using the same means of transport through the same route. In terms of labour cost, Pit decomposition method, was slightly higher than the Windrow and Heap decomposition method. This is due to...

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23Sep

Analysis of Data on Soil Organisms

The soil living organisms spotted in Mix P, W and H were counted. The organisms spotted include maggots, termites, worms etc.

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23Sep

Arithmetic Mean (Available Soil Nutrients)

The arithmetic means of the available soil nutrients in Mix P, W, H and O were calculated and used to rank the decomposition methods since the ANOVA indicated that, the mean of the available soil nutrient of the seedlings is different.

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23Sep

Arithmetic Mean (Height of Seedlings)

The arithmetic means of the height of the 3 types of seedlings growing in Mix P, W, H and O were calculated and used to rank the decomposition methods since the ANOVA indicated that, the height of the seedlings is different. In terms of the arithmetic mean of the height of the seedlings, the Pit Decomposition Method is the best method.

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22Sep

After ANOVA, What Next?

After ANOVA, What Next? After the using ANOVA to analyse the data, it can be concluded that, there is a significant difference between the mean of the values.

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22Sep

Results from the sub-culture approach

The mixed culture was sub-cultured to help identify the presence of distinct organisms. The three organisms identified were yeast, bacterial and fungi.

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22Sep

Results from the Mixed Culture

The pictures shows the results for the mixed culture. Three distinct microorganisms can be identified; yeast, fungi and bacterial. Samples from the mixed culture will be taken for further analysis (subculture).

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08Sep

Data on Micro Organisms

The data on the microorganisms in each compost will be obtained through laboratory works. We will test for the presence of bacteria, fungi, yeast and any other microorganism present. We believe the activities of these micronutrients will help improve the soil quality.

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08Sep

Determination of Organic Matter

The total amount of organic matter in each of the compost was determined using the Walkley-Black Method. 3 different replications were carried out for each of the compost and the data obtained was analysed using the concept of one-way ANOVA (with a level of significance of 5%) to determine if there is any significant difference between the results. After the analysis, it was realised that, the compost from the Pit decomposition Method has the highest amount of organic matter.

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31Aug

Determination of Copper (Cu), Iron (Fe) and Zinc (Zn)

Determination of Copper (Cu), Iron (Fe) and Zinc (Zn) The total available Cu, Fe and Zn in each of the compost was determined using the Atomic Absorption Spectrometer (AAS) machine. 3 different replications were carried out for each parameter per compost and the data obtained was analysed with the concept of one-way ANOVA (with a level of significance of 5%) to determine if there is any significant difference between the results. After the analysis, it was realised that, the compost from the...

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31Aug

Determination of Exchangeable Potassium

The total exchangeable potassium in each of the compost was determined in the ammonium acetate leachate by flame analysis using a flame photometer. 3 replications were run for each compost and the concept of ANOVA (with a level of significance of 5%) was used to determine if there was any significant difference between the mean of the exchangeable potassium in each compost. After the analysis, it was realised that, the compost from the Pit decomposition Method has the highest total exchangeable...

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31Aug

Determination of Available Phosphorus

The total phosphorus available in each of the compost was determined using the Bray No.1 Method and Ascorbic Acid. 3 replications were run for each compost and the concept of ANOVA (level of significance of 5%) was used to determine if there was any significant difference between the phosphorus available. After the analysis, it was realised that, the compost from the Pit decomposition Method has the highest available phosphorus.

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29Aug

Determination of Total Nitrogen

The total percentage Nitrogen present in each of the compost was determined using the Micro-Kjeldahl Method. 3 replications were run for each compost and the concept of ANOVA (level of significance of 5%) was used to determine if there was any significant difference. After the analysis, it was realised that, the compost from the Pit decomposition Method has the highest percentage of Nitrogen present.

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29Aug

Data on Soil Nutrients

The data on the soil nutrients present in each of the compost will be obtained through laboratory works. We believe the presence of these nutrients will affect the growth of the seedlings.

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29Aug

Analysis of Data on Macro Organisms

A general survey and a specific analysis was done to determine the macro organisms on the research site and in the compost. In terms of the macro organisms spotted, the Pit Decomposition Method performed better than the rest of the Decomposition Method.

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27Aug

Data on Macro Organisms

The data on macro organisms will be obtained through "spot and count" method since macro organisms can be seen with the naked eyes. The organisms found were measured to determine their average size.

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27Aug

Further Analysis (Two-Way ANOVA)

After the analysis of data using the concept of one way ANOVA showed that there is a significant difference in the mean of the height of the seedlings, we decided to do further analysis, this time using the concept of two way ANOVA.

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27Aug

Hypothesis Testing using ANOVA

ANOVA as a statistical tool was used to test the null hypothesis that the mean of the height of the seedlings are the same as against the alternative hypothesis that the mean of the height of the seedlings are different. Since in all the three different type of seedlings, the calculated probability "p" value is less than the assumed "p", then there is evidence to reject the null hypothesis, implying that, the mean of the height of the seedlings are different.

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26Aug

Data Analysis (Height of Cassia tree)

The data on the height of the Cassia tree (seedlings) was analysed using the concept of ANOVA and the results shows that there is a significant difference between the height of the seedlings in the three sets of compost.

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25Aug

Data on the Height of the Cassia Tree

After a month, the seedlings of the cassia tree growing in the compost from the Windrow Decomposition Method (CWDM) have an average height of 3.98 cm, that of the seedlings in the compost from Heap Decomposition Method (CHDM) have an average height of 2.58 cm and that of the seedlings in the compost from Pit Decomposition Method (CPDM) have an average height of 6.09 cm. In terms of the growth height of the Cassia tree, the Pit Decomposition Method is the best.

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25Aug

Data Analysis (Height of Neem tree)

The data on the height of the neem tree (seedlings) was analysed using the concept of ANOVA and the results shows that there is a significant difference between the height of the seedlings in the three sets of compost.

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24Aug

Data on the Height of the Neem Tree

After a month, the seedlings of the neem tree growing in the compost from the Windrow Decomposition Method (CWDM) have an average height of 7.26 cm, that of the seedlings in the compost from Heap Decomposition Method (CHDM) have an average height of 3.31 cm and that of the seedlings in the compost from Pit Decomposition Method (CPDM) have an average height of 9.43 cm. In terms of the growth height of the neem tree, the Pit Decomposition Method is the best.

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24Aug

Data Analysis (Height of Castor Oil Plant)

The data on the height of the castor oil plant (seedlings) was analysed using the concept of ANOVA and the results shows that there is a significant difference between the height of the seedlings in the three sets of compost.

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24Aug

Data on the Height of the Castor Oil Plant

After a month, the seedlings of the castor oil plant growing in the compost from the Windrow Decomposition Method (CWDM) have an average height of 7.21 cm, that of the seedlings in the compost from Heap Decomposition Method (CHDM) have an average height of 6.06 cm and that of the seedlings in the compost from Pit Decomposition Method (CPDM) have an average height of 10.55cm. In terms of the growth height of the castor oil plant, the Pit Decomposition Method is the best.

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23Aug

Let’s go measure the height of the seedlings

Data on the height of the seedlings will be acquired through simple measurement using a tape measure.

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22Aug

Let's go check the seedlings

The images shows the seedlings after some weeks of planting. By physical observation, the Pit (P) decomposition method is performing better than all the others.

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22Aug

Time for Data Collection

After allowing the plants to grow for a month, it's now time to collect the various data for analysis. The data will include: height of seedlings, count of micro and macro organisms, measure of soil nutrients. The data will be analysed using the ANOVA Technique to determine if there is any significant difference.

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19Aug

With 6 weeks to go.....

With approximately 6 weeks to end this competition, we will like to share with you a slide show of all the activities we have done. Sit back and enjoy.

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17Aug

STAKEHOLDER IDENTIFICATION

We have identified a number of stakeholders which we think the knowledge of the best household waste decomposition will be of great benefit to. We will visit them after the field work is completed. Don’t worry, we will keep you updated.

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16Aug

End of Terminologies

At this point we believe all the terminologies used in our research has been defined. We will like to end with the definitions of the terminologies and continue with updates on the main field work.

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16Aug

QUARRY WASTE

Quarry waste refers to the overburden materials that were removed in order to get access to the limestone for building and other purposes. These overburden materials at the onset contain little or no soil nutrients but when mixed with the compost produced through food waste decomposition, the nutrients will be improved to support plants growth.

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16Aug

FOOD WASTE

Food waste refers to the leftover food from homes, market places and eating places.

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16Aug

WINDROW DECOMPOSITION METHOD

Windrow Decomposition Method is one of the decomposition method we are studying into as far as our research is concerned. It involves piling up an amount of food waste (forming a rectangular shape) on the ground surface. The pile takes up the shape of a pit (rectangular) but there is no digging of a pit. The amount of food waste was allowed to decomposed for period of 2 months. After the 2 months period, it was realised that, there were more organisms in the compost than there were in the...

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07Aug

HEAP DECOMPOSITION METHOD

Heap Decomposition Method which is one of the Decomposition Method being studied in our research involves the heaping of food waste (forming a cone shape) on the ground. It does not involve digging of a pit. the food waste was allowed to decompose for a period of 2 months. After the 2 months, it was realised that, the compost obtained contained the least number of organisms and the amount of food waste that was totally decomposed was very small as compared to the other methods.

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07Aug

PIT DECOMPOSITION METHOD

Pit or Trench Decomposition Method is one of the methods being studied in our research. With this method, we buried an amount of food waste in a pit or trench of dimension 1.5m X 1.5m X 1m(deep) and allowed it to decompose for a period of 2 months. It was observed that, there were more organisms in the compost obtained and most of the food waste was decomposed.

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07Aug

NATIVE PLANTS

By native plants we mean plants that can be found at the Yongwa Quarry Site or nearby communities.

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02Aug

SOIL ENRICHMENT METHODS

"Soil enrichment methods" as used in our research refers to the methods that make use of organic materials (food waste) to improve the quality of soil through a process called decomposition. These methods includes (but not limited to): Pit, Heap and Windrow Decomposition Method.

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01Aug

Analysis of variance (ANOVA)

Analysis of variance (ANOVA) which is a statistical tool will be applied as a method to determine if there is any significant differences among and between the growth height of the seedlings planted in the three sets of compost and the count of organisms in the three sets of compost.

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31Jul

Understanding the Terminologies

In our next series of writing, we will define the terminologies used in our research and explain them clearly based on the context in which they have been used.

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30Jul

SCOPE OF WORK

We wish to define clearly the scope within which our research work is been carried out. Our research seeks to study into only the organic methods of soil enrichment, food waste decomposition to be specific. The decomposition methods been studied into are: Pit, Heap and Windrow decomposition method.

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28Jul

A Time to Remember

We spent some time with the National Jury at our research site (Yongwa Quarry) on the 24th of July, 2016. The time spent is a moment that will forever be remembered.

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27Jul

Meet "The Maggots"

Meet the maggots (eggs of flies), one of the lower classes of soil living organisms helping to speed up the rate of decomposition through their movement. Their presence gives an indication that, the partially decomposed food waste is serving as a breeding grounds for flying insects.

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21Jul

Meet "The Crickets"

Meet "The Crickets", one of the organisms enjoying the benefits of waste decomposition. The compost is so conducive that, they have laid their eggs in it.

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18Jul

Meet "The Browns" #Meet series

A number of grasshoppers (The Browns) have rushed to the research site to feed on the grasses.

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14Jul

Meet Series

We bring to you a series of write ups captioned "meet series"

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13Jul

Time for Planting

Seeds of three different native trees were acquired and planted in the three sets of compost.

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13Jul

3 SETS OF COMPOST

Three sets of compost have been obtained, one from the pit decomposition method, one from the windrow decomposition method and the third from the heap decomposition method.

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13Jul

LETS GO GET SOME SEEDS

Now that the food waste has turned into compost, lets go get some seeds for planting.

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10Jul

From FOOD WASTE To COMPOST

The food waste has decomposed and is now providing nutrients for plants and soil living organisms.

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06Jul

Research Site HIJACKED.

We visited our research site after a month of decomposition, only to find the whole placed hijacked. Guess who.

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23Jun

A Call from The United States

A call from Mr Kenneth Bansah, a PhD Candidate at the Missouri University of Science and Technology, Rolla - Missouri USA, demonstrated how far our research has traveled. This suggests the significance of our study to the international and scientific community.

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19Jun

A WORD OF CAUTION !!!

If you have planned to visit the Lime Stone Quarry in Yongwa, then you have to look out for this beautiful but dangerous creature (SCORPION)

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14Jun

Temps d'éduquer les Intervenants et les étudiants

Après la sélection du site de recherche , nous avons décidé de se lancer dans une éducation publique et de sensibilisation dans le district Krobo Yilo ( YKD ) , district du Lower Manya ( LMD ) et Tarkwa Nsuem Minicipal Assembler ( NTLAM ) . Lieux visités dans les différents districts comprennent la Division des services forestiers ( YKD , NTLAM ) , Ministère de l'alimentation et l'agriculture ( YKD ) . Diverses écoles et les marchés dans les districts ne sont pas exclus de l'exercice .

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11Jun

LETS TALK ABOUT THE LIMESTONE QUARRY AT YONGWA, GHANA

It is time for the world to know the uniqueness, the diversity in soil living organisms and all the amazing happenings at our research site (The Lime Stone Quarry at Yongwa, Ghana). As we wait for the household waste to decompose, lets talk about the Limestone Quarry at Yongwa.

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10Jun

It's Time for Waste Decomposition

The household waste collected has been mixed thoroughly, treated and its now ready for decomposition.

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09Jun

Lets go for some Household Waste

After all the stakeholders, market women and students have been brought to speed on our research, we decided to go collect some household waste. Wear your protective clothing, pick your waste bin and lets go hunting.

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04Jun

Pour les chercheurs des pays non anglophones

Voici un bref résumé de mes travaux de recherche. Il énonce ce que je propose de faire, comment je vais aller par toute la recherche, les objectifs et le possible hors vient.

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01Jun

Time to Educate the Stakeholders and the Students

After the research site selection, we decided to embark on a public education and awareness creation in the Yilo Krobo District (YKD), Lower Manya District (LMD) and Tarkwa Nsuem Minicipal Assemble (TNMA). Places visited within the various districts include the Forest Services Division (YKD, TNMA), Ministry of Food and Agriculture (YKD). Various schools and markets within the districts were not left out of the exercise.

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30May

Research Site Selection

As part of our research, we paid a visit to the Yongwa Quarry to select a suitable site for the field work and also familiarized ourselves with the workers and people of the nearby communities. The activities for the day included site and safety induction, site tour, introduction of group members to the workers at the quarry and time with the community people.

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26May

Methods and Procedure

To enrich the quarry soil and enhance biodiversity at the quarry site by making the soil conducive for living organisms and plants, a number of activities have to be undertaken. The activities includes: site investigation and selection, waste collection, decomposition of the waste collected, planting and monitoring of plants, counting of soil living organisms present, analysis of data and final report writing.

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06May

INTRODUCTION

Congratulation to all the researchers whose work was selected, nature says thank you. I will like to use this opportunity to introduce to the whole world my project. My project is about determining the best soil enrichment method for land reclamation using ANOVA Technique. Our aim is to enrich soil and enhance biodiversity at Quarry Site through waste decomposition and i hope nature will be the biggest winner.

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27Apr